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&READ EBOOK ☂ Discourse on Method and Related Writings ⇻ Ebook or Kindle ePUB free

The Discourse on Method marks the decisive break between the old Aristotelian scientific method and the modern kind Descartes sets out four steps for truth in the sciences 1 Doubt methodically 2 Break matters up into as many pieces as possible 3 Proceed from the easiest to the most difficult 4 Review for mathematical precision This is the exact opposite of the Aristotelian method that ruled minds for millennia, where one first relies on intuition where one cannot doubt , second breaks up things according to the rules of the syllogism, third works from any starting point, and fourth doesn t check the process but merely the outcome see the Posterior Analytics One discovers also, in reading his physics treatise The Globe, that it was Descartes who discovered Newton s laws of motion, and that he was also on to breakthroughs in optics and chemistry as well Descartes, then, was an eminently gifted and supremely wise thinker who lent his powers to all areas of human knowledge He was, in addition, one of the most vivid and lucid writers of all time, and, like any lover of truth, despised charlatanry and scholasticism In fact, Descartes perceived very well that the greatest truths were the simplest, and that those who do not think so are thinking of themselves merely For instance, in the Rules for Guiding One s Intelligence to the Truth, which ought to be the handbook of every aspiring philosopher, I think, even today, Descartes summarily expresses why science and factual knowledge has been so long 37,000 years approximately from the beginning of our species in coming H uman intelligence always bypasses what it thinks it can learn easily and hurries headlong towards novelties that aresublime One of the easiest subjects, according to Descartes method, is mathematics, which is also among the least popular for, I do believe, the reason just quoted in civilization, remember, everything s upside down the hardest is, if you just consider it for a moment, the easiest, since, obviously, math and geometry are the most evident Rarely do wisdom and knowledge sit side by side in an individual as they did in Descartes His writings, as a result, remain essential for all thinking people. Much of the content repeats and repeats and repeats Maybe its the edition that I own that has the problem, but overall it wasn t an enjoyable read, in the way collection was put together The reason why I picked up this book was primarily how Descartes lays out rules for rational thought process and how to problem solve Descartes was a great mathematician and its fascinating to read his philosophical point of view in the way he looked at mathematics and arrived at solutions It becomes a little muddled when the rules for intelligence shift to second half of the book I think, therefore I amis his most well known phrase which acts as a setting to some of the claims he makes as an enlightened man. In the Flammarion edition, these 100 pages of 1637 are presented in six parts First, Ren Descartes specifies that this method is used for his reason, from mathematics, to increase knowledge He says that we must stop being rough and propose a method based on four principles to safely go to the truth, uprooting from the mind the bad opinions received I do not know why, suddenly, I think to Pride and Prejudice Then Descartes exposes four maxims for also, to go towards the knowledge He proves the existence of God and announces the cogito Then he defines Nature, man and soul Finally, he speaks of advancing masked since Galileo, in 1633, was condemned by the Church.Despite his desire for clarity, this book is confused, and it is not only Ren s fault, which mixes principles and maxims, but also the publisher who adds a contemporary presentation, and follows the Discourse of various excerpts of texts and undated letters.Another drawback to the reading of the text is that Ren advances masked, sometimes half word, sometimes in a very convoluted style This is due to his fear of the Catholic religion, which sees that since Copernicus and Galileo, science emerges and tries to steal his prestige and truth from the king the Age of Enlightenment will be worse.As for metaphysics, God and souls, Ren proves the existence of God Despite his method, he does not prove anything at all, he explains in a pinch He is confused on the soul, which is still a problem at the moment He assimilates the soul to thought and is convinced, unlike Montaigne, that animals do not think.On the cogito , he takes the I think so I am Pereira, and there is the breaststroke.No wonder he was also masked to avoid the disputatio of scholastics Blaise Pascal presents in Les Provinciales Their activity, he says, is just a waste of time, and I have so much to discover in such a short life All is not bad, far from it, and Descartes is a great discoverer, especially in mathematics, in analytic geometry We can also say that he has modernized philosophy, neglected since ancient times Spinoza, who killed his father Descartes, will do it evenmathematically andincomprehensibly.Descartes wanted to create a universal science based on mathematics, science incorporating even philosophy At that time a scientist could embrace all knowledge, it was possible, but some of them were still stammering, like physiology Rene thought hard as the heart heated blood to circulate to the brain where a part of this red liquid turned into animal spirits , these going to activate the muscles.I think he would have liked to know neuroscience. Giving this five stars even though parts of this got a little confusing I still love Descartes, but he tends to contradict himself a lot Honestly, that makes himentertaining to read, for me I meanly liked this because it shows his interest in science and math, not just religion and philosophy.I should note Descartes is one writer that has made meof a skeptic to religion than I use to be in the past Yes he was Catholic, but you could argue he was a skeptic too. Descartes is enjoyable as a rationalist philosopher I throughly embrace his ideals of self reflection and learning My only problem is an issue that is core to most rationalist argument up to the 19th century All analysis and argumentation relies on the existance of God So every argument ends with the essential statement Argument A is so because God wants it so This is not to imply I don t have faith in God I just believe that a rational logical argumentation must center around observable fact not assumed faith This opinion doesn t translate to the idea that Descartes is not worth the time reading He is listed as one of the greatest minds of western society for a reason To read his works is to understand core ideas held by the western mind. Descartes was so muchthan cogito ergo sum, the realized existence theory that is bashed into our brains by countless Philosophy 101 professors and teachers at the moment of our birth into facilitated critical thinking, and this text of his collected works proves his effective while dated means of looking at life and thought through the lens of a mathematic and scientific method Though no longer widely accepted in contemporary philosophy, one has to appreciate, if not entirely admire, Descartes s dedication and discipline in achieving enlightenment through himself, not through the world around him A supremely modern text, his Methods. in particular allows us to see where we were and how far we have come in philosophy, and further provide us with a means and method to question our existence, morality, and most of all, where we seek and arrive at conclusions concerning what is rightfully true. Would have been higher if the Rules for Guiding One s Intelligence had been completed its first part is a belter but the second half never really got to its point Even still, I tookfrom the unfinished Rules than I did the Discourse. &READ EBOOK ⇨ Discourse on Method and Related Writings ⇢ It Is Not Enough To Have A Good Mind It Is Important To Use It Well Ren Descartes Was A Central Figure In The Scientific Revolution Of The Seventeenth Century In His Discourse On Method He Outlined The Contrast Between Mathematics And Experimental Sciences, And The Extent To Which Each One Can Achieve Certainty Drawing On His Own Work In Geometry, Optics, Astronomy And Physiology, Descartes Developed The Hypothetical Method That Characterizes Modern Science, And This Soon Came To Replace The Traditional Techniques Derived From Aristotle Many Of Descartes Most Radical Ideas Such As The Disparity Between Our Perceptions And The Realities That Cause Them Have Been Highly Influential In The Development Of Modern PhilosophyThis Edition Sets The Discourse On Method In The Wider Context Of Descartes Work, With The Rules For Guiding One S Intelligence In Searching For The Truth, Extracts From The WorldAnd Selected Letters From A Companion Volume, Meditations And Other Metaphysical Writings, Is Also Published In Penguin Classics Many might disagree, but I would recomend this book to nobody If Descartes was genious, it escaped me.I remember looking at greatness and not understanding it, case and point the Karpov vs Kasparov chess matches of years back Descartes not the case. This book combines Descartes famous Discourse on Method along with some polite correspondence letters written to its critics, as well as two other publications Rules for Guiding One s Intelligence in Searching for the Truth and a portion of The World The Discourse on Method itself is a must read for students of philosophy, mathematics or any of the sciences especially engineering or computer science , as it defines indispensable ground rules for problem solving He establishes some basic rules now common to engineering, such as, never accepting something to be true unless you know it to be true, dividing a problem into as many smaller manageable pieces as necessary to resolve it efficiently, attacking all the pieces of a problem at the simplest pieces first, and to meticulously document enumerate the processes and solution as you go The latter portions of this discourse focus on the philosophical question of man s most irreducible elements, searching for a definition of the soul From this portion you get the famous phrase I think therefore I am.The excerpts from The World, were not terribly interesting, but this owesto the fact that it is severely dated There were some portions of it that lightly referenced the heliocentric theory which caused Descartes to hold off publication until after his death, once he saw how the church reacted to Galileo s publications But again, many of the postulations are dated and based on a 17th century view of matter, physiology, and astronomy.The Rules for Guiding One s Intelligence in Searching for the Truth can be thought of as an detailed extension of the techniques outlined in Discourse on Method and is perhaps muchsuited to students or professionals whose line of work requires day to day implementation of the scientific method His view is that mathematical studies should bethan just the narrow categorization in which we ve come to see arithmetic and geometry Instead it should imply any study or technique that deals with order or measure, regardless if it deals with numbers, figures, stars, sounds or something else He felt that this broader definition is what was understood by the Greeks who studied under Pythagoras Plato, who had prerequisite for any potential student to have an understanding of mathesis He enumerates twenty one rules that constitute this understanding of mathematical practice, much of which is now the basis of the modern scientific method, specifically related to defining and developing a hypothesis It is incredibly useful publication that I can see myself coming back to and re reading often in the future.